¿Ortega se transforma en Somoza?

 

Excompañeros de armas del líder sandinista consultados por La Tercera, además de la oposición nicaragüense, sostienen que la represión, la corrupción y un régimen totalitario y dinástico son los elementos comunes entre Daniel Ortega y Anastasio Somoza.

*Artículo original de: La Tercera 


Hace exactos 39 años, el 19 de julio de 1979, el Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (FSLN), liderado por el comandante Daniel Ortega, entró triunfante a Managua, poniendo fin a la larga dictadura de Anastasio Somoza. La victoria de la Revolución Sandinista marcó el destino de Nicaragua durante la siguiente década, hasta que en 1990 fueron derrotados en las urnas. Ortega no se dio por vencido e hizo todo lo posible para retomar al poder. Entonces, negoció con sus antiguos enemigos políticos, rompió con parte importante de sus camaradas, abandonó los sueños del sandinismo y finalmente logró lo que siempre quiso: ganó las elecciones de 2006, aunque a los pocos años transformó su gobierno en un régimen totalitario, marcado por el nepotismo, acusaciones de corrupción y dos cuestionadas reelecciones (2011 y 2016) que lo han llevado a superar los años que el propio Somoza estuvo al mando de uno de los países más pobres de Centroamérica.

Precisamente, cuando el pasado 18 de abril estallaron las protestas contra la reforma previsional de Ortega, varios de los manifestantes salieron a las calles -primero en Managua y luego en otras urbes del país- con carteles comparando a su presidente con Somoza. “¡Daniel y Somoza son la misma cosa!”, han gritado durante ya tres meses los opositores de Ortega.

Aunque en estricto rigor la Nicaragua de los años 70 enfrentó un escenario de guerra civil, con un estimado de 50 mil muertos, las comparaciones entre Somoza y Ortega no son necesariamente por el número de fallecidos (más de 350 desde abril pasado), sino que por el estilo dictatorial, la acumulación de riqueza, el manejo de la policía, la corrupción y las violaciones a los derechos humanos.

“Ortega ha ejecutado un genocidio igual que Somoza”, afirma a La Tercera Dora María Téllez, conocida como la “Comandante Dos” y figura clave de la Revolución Sandinista. “Tenemos una dictadura familiar con pretensiones dinásticas”, agrega, al teléfono desde Managua.

Anastasio Somoza Debayle gobernó Nicaragua con mano de hierro entre 1967 y 1972, y luego entre 1974 y 1979. Es decir, estuvo durante una década al mando de su país. Pero en rigor, su familia gobernó durante cuatro décadas, desde los años 30 en adelante. Si llega a 2022, Ortega habrá gobernado durante 15 años de manera consecutiva, más los 10 años en que estuvo al mando del país tras el triunfo de la Revolución Sandinista. De todos modos, ya lleva más tiempo de lo que estuvo Anastasio Somoza García (19 años en total) y Somoza Debayle (10 años en total).

El petróleo de Hugo Chávez

“Las comparaciones son entre Daniel Ortega y Anastasio Somoza Debayle, porque este último es quien aún está en la memoria colectiva de los nicaragüenses. Yo no recuerdo un período de tres meses de la dictadura somocista con tantos muertos y tanta represión”, cuenta a La Tercera Luis Carrión, uno de los nueve comandantes de la Dirección Nacional del FSLN que dirigió Nicaragua entre 1979 y 1990. De esta manera, mientras Somoza manejó como quiso a la Guardia Civil, Ortega está al mando de la policía y grupos paramilitares como los que el martes lograron retomar Masaya, el mayor bastión de la oposición.

El otro punto donde hay similitudes es en el carácter dinástico de ambos regímenes. En el caso de los Somoza, primero gobernó Somoza García (1937-1947 y 1950-1956), luego su hijo Luis Somoza Debayle (1956-1963) y finalmente el hermano de este, Anastasio Somoza Debayle (1974-1979). En el caso de los Ortega, su esposa es desde enero de 2017 la vicepresidenta, mientras que siete hijos de la pareja figuran en cargos clave. “El poder está concentrado en la familia Ortega, no en el partido. Es un régimen dinástico”, advierte Carrión.

Paramilitares progubernamentales usan sin ningún tipo de restricciones armamento militar y recorren en camionetas de lujo barrios y carreteras, en lo que ellos llaman “caravanas de la paz”, pero que han sido definidos por el pueblo como “escuadrones de la muerte”.

También parte de la prensa nicaragüense y los detractores de Ortega han puesto énfasis en la corrupción generalizada del país. “Los Somoza jamás acumularon tanto poder económico como Ortega. Daniel Ortega tuvo la suerte de establecer un convenio de petróleo con Hugo Chávez. Pero el dinero proveniente de esa venta barata de petróleo se lo apoderó Ortega. Se embolsó más de cuatro mil millones de dólares”, denuncia a La Tercera Hugo Torres, excomandante sandinista y el único que participó en dos hitos clave en la lucha contra la dictadura de Somoza: la toma de la casa de Chema Castillo y la del Palacio Nacional. “Daniel Ortega es peor que Somoza”, concluye.

“Tacho y Tachito”

De acuerdo con el diario nicaragüense La Prensa, en 40 años los Somoza acumularon una fortuna de US$ 500 millones, mientras que la de Ortega sería de US$ 3.500. Tanto ese periódico como analistas nicaragüenses y excompañeros de armas de Ortega coinciden en que el líder sandinista controla el Poder Judicial, la Asamblea Nacional y el órgano electoral.

“Tacho”, como le decían a Somoza García, solía vanagloriarse: “Plata para los amigos, palo para los indiferentes, plomo para los enemigos”. Y lo mismo habría repetido “Tachito”, su hijo. “Aquí las reglas las pone la Constitución, a través del pueblo. Las reglas no pueden venir a cambiarlas de la noche a la mañana porque se le ocurrió a un grupo de golpistas”, dijo Ortega días atrás.

 

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